Ideas and Sources



Awareness of Strategic Challenge

Can America compete in the world economy? Most advocates of quality and productivity improvement cite the deterioration of the U.S. competitive position with respect to the quality of its products and services. Since the competition is always improving, an organization must be aware of the need to focus on the continuous improvement of its services and/or products. Continuous improvement, according to Deming and others, is a process of continually improving the design of products, the delivery of service, and all aspects of the way work is carried out. Continuous improvement requires planning, doing the work, evaluating the results, and modifying the way work is accomplished based on those evaluations. Continuous improvement requires a high degree of "people" involvement at all levels and a constant stream of innovative ideas. Some possible actions to promote an awareness of a strategic challenge among organizational members include:


For more information, see:

Shetty, Y. K. & Buehler, V. M. (1990). The quest for competitiveness: Lessons from America's productivity and quality leaders. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Berger, S., Dertouzos, M. L., Lester, R. K., Solow, R. M., and Thurow, L. C. (1989). Toward a new industrial America. Scientific American, 260 (6), 39-47.

Mohrman, A. M. (1989). Large-scale organizational change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Negandhi, A. R. & Savara, A. (1988). International strategic management. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Albrecht, K. & Zemke, R. (1985). Service America! Doing business in the new economy. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin.


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to gather data about what your customers think. This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 2 - Measures of Customer Satisfaction- can help you find out what your customers think about your products or services.


For more information about a quality revolution in the public sector and about the relationship between quality improvement and cost reduction, see:

Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality. New York, NY: The Free Press. pp. 40 - 41.

Peters, T. (1987). Thriving on chaos. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 65 - 87.


Adopt some tools and techniques to ensure continuous improvement. See:

Naumann, E. (1994). Creating customer value: The path to sustainable competitive advantage. Cincinnati, OH: Thomas Executive Press.

Kinlaw, D. C. (1992). Continuous improvement and measurement for total quality: A team-based approach. San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company.

Bowles, J. & Hammond H. (1991). Beyond quality: How 50 winning companies use continuous improvement. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam & Sons.

White, B. J. (1988). Accelerating quality improvement. In L. Schein and M. A. Berman (Eds.), Total quality performance (pp. 2 - 7). New York, NY: The Conference Board, Inc.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: The Putnam Publishing Group.


Vision for the Future

How will the organization as we know it survive - let alone succeed- in the face of increased global competition and rapid changes in technology? Organizations must be aware of their competition and changing economic conditions in order to thrive in the future. All companies utilize business or strategic plans which begin with determining direction. The direction to be pursued is dependent upon answers to such questions as "What is the purpose of this organization?" "What does this organization have to do in the future to remain competitive?"


Think about the purpose of your organization and what it needs to do to remain competitive in the future. See:

Beneveniste, G. (1994). The twenty-first century organization: Analyzing current trends - imagining the future. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Redding, J. C. & Catalanello, R. F. (1994). Strategic readiness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Boyett, J. H. & Conn, H. P. (1993). Workplace 2000. New York, NY: Penguin U.S.A.

Crosby, P. B. (1993). Completeness: Quality for the 21st century. New York, NY: Penguin U.S.A.

Nanus, B. (1992). Visionary Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Srivastva, S. & Fry, R. E. (1992). Executive and organizational continuity: Managing the paradoxes of stability and change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kilmann, R. & Covin, T. J. (1987). Corporate transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For more information about how to develop a strategy and plan for your organization, see:

Kaufman, R. (1992). Strategic planning plus: An organizational guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Nutt, P. C. & Backoff, R. W. (1992). Strategic management of public and third sector organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Beneveniste, G. (1989). Mastering the politics of planning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hellebust, K. G. & Krallinger, J. C. (1989). Strategic planning work book. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Pascarella, P. & Frohman, M. A. (1989). The purpose-driven organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wilkins, A. L. (1989). Developing corporate character. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bryson, J. M. (1988). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Below, P. J., Morrisey, G. L., & Acomb, B. L. (1987). The executive guide to strategic planning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hax, A. C. (1987). Planning strategies that work. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Camillus, J. C. (1985). Strategic planning and management control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.


Innovation

How many things are being done in your organization just because "this is the way that it's always been done"? Many times there are good reasons for the tried and true approach. However, there are likely to be more than a few instances where a fresh approach can be a better approach. The best source of ideas about these new approaches is the people involved. Here are some ideas about tapping into this source.


For more information about how managers and organizations can stimulate creativity and innovation, see:

Janov, J. (1994). The inventive organization: Hope and daring at work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Calvert, G. (1993). Highwire management: Risk-taking tactics for leaders, innovators, & trailblazers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Jelinek, M. & Schoonhover, C. B. (1993). The innovation marathon. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Roberts, E. B. (1987). Generating technological innovation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Nolan, V. (1993). The innovator's handbook: Problem solving communication teamwork. New York, NY: Penguin U.S.A.

Henry, J. & Walker, D. (1991). Managing innovation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Drucker, P. F. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Kanter, R. M. (1983). The change masters. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.


Quality Philosophy

Simply telling organizational members to "think quality" will have little effect. In order to be effective, everyone in the organization needs to be aware of and committed to a quality policy or philosophy. Your scores indicate that organizational members may not be aware of the need for improvement and the benefits that follow from improvement. Some actions include:

Establishing a quality policy demands that senior executives come to grips with defining quality and defining means for measuring quality. A policy should make clear to organizational members what is expected from them. To be most effective, the policy should:


For more information, see:

Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Pascarella, P. & Frohman, M. A. (1989). The purpose-driven organization: Unleashing the power of direction and commitment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Scholtes, P. & Hacquebord, H. (1988). Beginning the quality transformation, Part 1. Quality Progress, July, 28-33.

Scholtes, P. & Hacquebord, H. (1987). A practical approach to quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates.

Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Townsend, P. L. & Gebhardt, J. E. (1986). Commit to quality. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: Putnam Publishing Group.

Crosby, P. B. (1980). Quality is free. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Value Systems/Ethics

Value Systems

Every organization promotes a set of values that guide people in their work. This can be done consciously, as in cases where specific values are promoted in policy statements, or unconsciously, by values conveyed through the actions and examples of senior executives. In either case, your responses indicate that people in your organization may be receiving a message which is inconsistent with quality and productivity improvement. Some possible actions include:


For more information, see:

Wilkins, A. L. (1989). Developing corporate character. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Peters, T. J. & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. New York, NY: Harper & Row.


Ethics

Honesty and integrity can provide a cornerstone to the quality and productivity improvement process. Quality, flexibility, and innovation require wholesale involvement by organizational members and a willingness to work together, all of which rely on trust. Some ways to promote this attitude follow.


For more information, see:

Conger, J. A. (1994). Spirit at work: Discovering the spirituality in leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mitroff, I. I., Mason, R. O., & Pearson, C. M. (1994). Framebreak: The radical redesign of American business. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pauchant, T. C. & Mitroff, I. I. (1992). Transforming the crisis-prone organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bowman, J. S. (1991). Ethical frontiers in public management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lewis, C. W. (1991). The ethics challenge in public service. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brown, M. T. (1990). Working Ethics. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cooper, T. L. (1990). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (3rd Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Guy, M. E. (1990). Ethical decision making in everyday work situations. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Steinberg, S. S. & Austern, D. T. (1990). Government. ethics, and managers: A guide to solving ethical dilemmas in the public sector. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Srivasta, S. (1988). Executive integrity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pastin, M. (1986). The hard problems of management: Gaining the ethics edge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The concept of social responsibility has emerged as an increasingly important concern. Businesses can no longer base their decisions solely on economic criteria; they must also consider the legal, ethical, moral, philanthropic, and social impacts of each business decision.


For more information about corporate social responsibility, see:

Manley, W. W. & Shrode, W. A. (1990). Critical issues in business conduct: Legal, ethical, and social challenges for the 1990s. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Anderson, J. W. (1989). Corporate social responsibility: Guidelines for top management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.


Senior Executive Involvement

A successful quality and/or productivity improvement process needs the active participation of senior executives. Such involvement sends a clear, positive message throughout the organization. Some possible actions include:


For more information, see:

Beckhard, R. & Pritchard, W. (1992). Changing the essence: The art of creating and leading fundamental change in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lynch, R. (1992). Lead: How public and nonprofit managers can bring out the best in themselves and their organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (1990). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hale, R. L., Hoelscher, D. R., & Kowal, R. E. (1987). Quest for quality. Minneapolis, MN: Tennant Company.

Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders. New York, NY: Harper & Row.


Senior Executive Visible Commitment

Senior executive commitment is a prerequisite for quality and productivity improvement. Unless a leader's commitment is visible and real, those involved in the performance efforts do not see the quality process as important. A leader's day-to-day behavior is an important clue to others as to what value performance improvement has to that person. Some possible actions include:


For more information, see:

Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 85 - 108.

Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (1988). What followers expect from leaders: How to meet people's expectations and build credibility (Two-cassette Audio Program). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is total quality control? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. 122 - 136.

Peters, T. & Austin, N. (1985). A passion for excellence. New York, NY: Random House.


Supervisor Role in Quality Improvement

People need to know that their supervisors have the capability, desire, and resources to help them solve problems and to provide advice on quality and productivity improvement.

Make sure middle managers and supervisors:


For more information, see:

Lee, D. S. & Cayer, N. J. (1994). Supervision for success in government: A practical guide for first-line managers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Schmidt, W. H. & Finnigan, J. P. (1993). TQManager: A practical guide for managing in a total quality organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality. New York, NY: The Free Press. pp. 72 - 75.

Parson, M. J. (1986). An executive's coaching handbook. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications.

Phillips, J. J. (1985). Improving supervisors' effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Shout, H. F. (1984). Start supervising (3rd Ed.). New Jersey: BNA Books.

Fournies, F. F. (1978). Coaching for improved work performance. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.


Supervisor Concern for Improvement

The managers (at all levels) in an organization, by their words, actions, support, and choices, make it clear to organizational members what is important. For everyone in the organization to become committed to quality and/or productivity improvement, it must be clear that the managers are so committed. Some ways to send this message include:


For more information about listening and demonstrating concern, see:

Ryan, K. D. & Oestreich, D. K. (1991). Driving fear out of the workplace: How to overcome the invisible barriers to quality, productivity, and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Murphy, K. J. (1987). Effective listening. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Atwater, E. (1981). I hear you. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


For more information about executive councils and teams, see:

Townsend, P. L. & Gebhardt, J. E. (1986). Commit to quality. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


System/Structure for Quality Improvement

Sometimes the barriers to quality improvement exist in the structure or system. It may be beneficial to examine the system as it supports or inhibits quality improvement. While much of the structure/system cannot be changed, it is likely that there are some areas where change is possible. Some actions include:


For more information about designing or redesigning organizational structure, see:

Nadler, D. A., Gerstein, M. S., & Shaw, R. B. (1992). Organizational architecture: Design for changing organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bozeman, B. & Straussman, J. D. (1990). Public management strategies: Guidelines for managerial effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 6.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 12.

Mohrman, A. M., Mohrman, S. A., Ledford, G. E., Cummings, T. G., & Lawler, E. E. (1989). Large-scale organizational change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For more information about "organizing for quality" and quality team structure, see creativity and:

Feigenbaum, A. V. (1983). Total quality control (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 147 - 199.

Waddell, W. C. (1981). Overcoming Murphy's law. New York, NY: AMACOM. pp. 175 - 204.


For information about constructing flow charts, see:

Juran, J. M. (1992). Juran on quality by design: The new steps for planning quality into goods and services. New York, NY: The Free Press. pp. 46-51.

Stankard, M. F. (1986). Productivity by choice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 123 - 127.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: Putnam Publishing Group.


Awareness of Quality Issues

Organizational members need to be aware of the importance of a quality and/or productivity improvement process. In order to promote awareness some actions include:


For more information, see:

Shetty, Y. K. & Buehler, V. M. (1990). The quest for competitiveness: Lessons from America's productivity and quality leaders. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Stankard, M. F. (1986). Productivity by choice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 65 - 91.

Waddell, W. C. (1981). Overcoming Murphy's law. New York, NY: AMACOM. pp. 205 - 236.


Attitudes/Morale

People are the most basic quality and productivity factor in any organization. The attitudes and morale of the work force are important determinants of quality and productivity improvement. Motivation underlies every person's performance. Motivation is affected by quality of leadership, job fulfillment, personal recognition, and the overall support present in the working environment. Here are some things to consider to improve morale.


For more information, see:

Jamieson, D. & O'Mara, J. (1991). Managing workforce 2000. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

London, M. & Mone, E. M. (1988) Career growth and human resource strategies: The role of the human resource professional in employee development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Block, P. (1987). The empowered manager. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Weisbord, M. R. (1987). Productive workplaces: Organizing and managing for dignity, meaning, and community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Beck, A. C. & Hillman, E. D. (1986). Positive management practices: Bringing out the best in organizations and people. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kilmann, R. H. (1984). Beyond the quick fix. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For information about how you can identify your particular strengths and use them to achieve self-empowerment and satisfaction at work, see:

Heman, S. M. A force of ones: Reclaiming individual power in a time of teams, work groups, and other crowds. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Cooperation

Your scores in this category seem to suggest that a spirit of cooperation and teamwork may not exist in all areas of the organization. One reason (among others) could be that people are not rewarded for working together to accomplish a team effort. When individuals are rewarded only for their own accomplishments, team efforts can suffer. Some actions include:


See Cross-functional quality teams under Creativity and Team building under Organizational Development.


For more information about encouraging cooperation, see:

Gray, B. (1989). Collaborating: Finding common ground for multiparty problems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For more information about relationships between management and unions, see:

Lawler, E. E. (1992). The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Herrick, N. Q. (1990). Joint management and employee participation: Labor and management at the crossroads. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Work Force Involvement

People want to have their ideas and opinions given careful consideration. When initiating a quality improvement process, everyone should be involved since people's support and commitment are necessary for success. Some ideas to get people involved follow.


For more information about how to design, structure, and manage a high-involvement organization, see:

Lawler, E. E. (1992). The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lawler, E. E. (1991). High-involvement management: Participation strategies for improving organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Shores, A. R. (1990). A TQM approach to achieving manufacturing excellence. White Plains, NY: Quality Resources.


For more information about getting people involved, see:

Nielson, D. (1993). Partnering with employees. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lawler, E. E., Mohrman, S. A., & Ledford, G. E. (1992). Employee involvement and total quality management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 109 - 134.

Fox, W. M. (1987). Effective group problem solving. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hale, R. L., Hoelscher, D. R., & Kowal, R. E. (1987). Quest for quality. Minneapolis, MN: Tennant Company.

Tarkenton, F. (1986). How to motivate people. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 62 - 77.


Perceptions of Work Environment

Your scores indicate that people's perceptions of their work environments may be inconsistent with a quality emphasis. People must perceive that there are enough of the appropriate personnel to get the job done and that their work goals or standards are fair. Some actions include:


For more information, see:

Champagne, P. J. & McAfee, R. B. (1989). Motivating strategies for performance and productivity: A guide to human resource development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 15 - 33.

Weisbord, M. R. (1987). Productive workplaces: Organizing and managing for dignity, meaning, and community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Beck, A. C. & Hillman, E. D. (1986). Positive management practices. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For information about how you can identify your particular strengths and use them to achieve self-empowerment and satisfaction at work, see:

Heman, S. M. A force of ones: Reclaiming individual power in a time of teams, work groups, and other crowds. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Social Interactions

Social interactions may not appear to be related to quality improvement at first glance. However, in most organizations people need to work together for a common goal to accomplish their work successfully. It is certainly easier and more enjoyable to work together in a friendly atmosphere and, most likely, more productive as well. In order to promote a friendly work environment you may wish to:


For more information, see:

Champagne, P. J. & McAfee, R. B. (1989). Motivating strategies for performance and productivity: A guide to human resource development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


If you're involved in a conflict with a boss or co-worker, this book will help you get at the root of the problem, take responsibility for what's happening, and respond more effectively.

Kettler, J. (1994). Beyond blame: A new way of resolving conflicts in relationships. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Task/Characteristics

Sometimes barriers to quality improvement can be found in the tasks themselves. People need the appropriate supplies, equipment, information, and/or time to accomplish their work. Work delays can often be attributed to one or more of these barriers. Your scores indicate that one or more of these barriers may exist. Some actions include:


See Performance action teams description.


For more information about identifying work design alternatives, see:

Dingers, V. R. & Hauck, W. C. (1993). Achieving high commitment work systems: A practitioners guide to sociotechnical system implementation. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Salvendy, G. (1993). Handbook of human factors. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lawler, E. E. (1992). The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For more information about how task characteristics can impact work effectiveness, see:

Jones, J. W. & Bray, D. W. (1990). Applying psychology in business. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Schoorman, F. D. & Schneider, B. (1986). Grappling with work facilitation. In F. D. Schoorman and B. Schneider (Eds.), Facilitating work effectiveness. New York, NY: Lexington Books.


Rewards/Recognition

People are influenced by the consequences of their actions. When establishing goals and improvement plans, consider the informal and formal rewards that are in place. Besides money, people work for things like achievement, influence, advancement, job satisfaction, autonomy, and recognition. Here are some ideas.


For more information, see:

Lawler, E. E. (1992). The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Jamieson, D. & O'Mara, J. (1991). Managing workforce 2000. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kilmann, R. H. (1989). Managing beyond the quick fix. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Roth, W. F. (1989). Work and rewards. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.


If you're not in charge, here are some books that can help you provide yourself with some career rewards.

Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Levinson, H. (1992). Career mastery: Keys to taking charge of your career throughout your work life. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.


Customer Orientation

Your scores indicate that you doubt that people in the organization are "customer" oriented. Keeping in mind that there are internal as well as possible external customers, the encouragement of a customer orientation can lead to some real gains in quality and productivity.


See Cross-functional action teams description.


For more information, see:

Naumann, E. (1994). Creating customer value: The path to sustainable competitive advantage. Cincinnati, OH: Thomas Executive Press.

Tjosvold, D. (1992). Teamwork for customers: Building organizations that take pride in serving. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cannie, J. K. & Caplin, D. (1991). Keeping customers for life. New York, NY: AMACOM.

Lele, M. M. & Sheth, J. N. (1991). The customer is key. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Whitely, R. C. (1991). The customer driven company: Moving from talk to action. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 47 - 84.

Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 15 - 40.


Communications

Your scores indicate that organizational members may not be getting the information they need to do their jobs. Some actions include:


For more information, see:

Mink, O., Mink, B., Owen, K., & Esterhuyser, P. W. (1993). Change at work: A comprehensive management process for transforming organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Schmidt, W. H. & Finnigan, J. P. (1992). The race without a finish line: America's quest for total quality. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Clampitt, P. G. (1991). Communicating for managerial effectiveness. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Fulk, J. & Steinfield, C. W. (1990). Organizations and communications technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kraemer, K. L., King, J. L., Dunkle, D. E., & Lane, J. P. (1989). Managing information systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Rosenblatt, S. B., Cheatham, T. R., & Watt, J. T. (1982). Communication in business (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Here are some books that can help you communicate more effectively:

Fast, J. (1993). Subtext: Reading beneath the surface and between the lines in the workplace. New York, NY: Viking Press.

Zaremba, A. (1993). Management in a new key: Communication in a modern organization. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Bellman, G. M. (1992). Getting things done when you are not in charge. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Garnett, J. L. (1992). Communicating for results in government: A strategic approach for public managers. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gudykunst, W. B. (1991). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.


Work Unit Input Measures

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its inputs (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), input measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Input measures describe the resources, time, and staff utilized for a program. Financial resources can be identified as current dollars, or discounted, based on economic or accounting practices. Non-financial measures can be described in proxy measures. These measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described in other sections of this book.

Examples:


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Work Unit Output Measures

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its outputs (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), output measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Output measures describe goods or services produced. Outputs can be characterized by a discrete definition of the service or by a proxy measure that represents the product. Highly dissimilar products can be rolled up into a metric. As with Input Measures, these measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described later.

Examples:


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Work Unit Efficiency Measures

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its efficiency (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), efficiency measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Efficiency is the measure of the relationship of outputs to inputs and is usually expressed as a ratio. These measures can be expressed in terms of actual expenditure of resources as compared to expected expenditure of resources. They can also be expressed as the expenditure of resources for a given output.

Examples:


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.

For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Work Unit Effectiveness Measures

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its effectiveness (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), effectiveness measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Effectiveness measures are measures of output conformance to specified characteristics.

Examples:


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.

For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Work Unit Direct Outcomes

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its direct outcomes (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), direct outcome measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Direct outcomes measures assess the effect of output against given objective standard.

Examples:


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Work Unit Impact Measures

Your scores indicate that your work unit may not be measuring its impact (or perhaps the information is collected but not shared with work unit members). The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), impact measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

Impact measures describe how the outcome of a program affects strategic organization or mission objectives.

Example: (1) Impact of materiel readiness on execution of Operation Desert Storm


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


For more information, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


Diagnosis

In order to implement a customer-driven strategy in an organization, you must first learn what you are (and are not) doing now that will drive or impede the quality improvement process. An internal evaluation, or diagnosis, of key areas and processes in the organization can help you determine what you are doing right and where improvement is needed. Doing things right means:


For more information about diagnosing and improving your organization, see:

Ryan, K. D. & Ostreich, D. K. (1993). Driving fear out of the workplace: How to overcome the invisible barriers to quality, productivity, and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cannie, J. K. & Caplin, D. (1991). Keeping customers for life. New York, NY: AMACOM.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 9.

Harrison, M. I. (1987). Diagnosing organizations: Methods, models, and processes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.


Warranties/Guarantees

Warranties and guarantees demonstrate the organization's commitments to customers. Whether explicit or implicit, they are promises made to customers about products or services. These commitments should promote trust and confidence among customers in the organization's products, services, and relationships. Make sure that the organization's commitments:


For more information, see:

Heskett, J. L. (1986). Managing in the service economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Lele, M. M. & Karmarker, U. S. (1983). Good product support is smart marketing. Harvard Business Review, Nov.- Dec., 124-132.

Kendall, C. L. & Russ, F. A. (1975). Warranty and complaint policies: An opportunity for marketing management. Journal of Marketing, April, 35-41.


Supplier Activities

Quality results demand that supplies, materials, commodities, and services required by the organization meet quality specifications. Deming asserts that the best way to ensure this is to develop long-term relationships with suppliers. The purchase of supplies should not be made on the basis of price tag alone. The development of a long-term relationship requires that the supplier also be concerned with quality and work with the organization as part of a team to reduce costs and improve quality. Some ways to involve suppliers as part of your team include:


For more information, see:

Lewis, J. D. (1990). Partnerships for profit: Structuring and managing strategic alliances. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: Perigee Books.


Definition (Senior Executives)

In order to successfully improve organizational performance, senior executives must clearly define:

Strategic Plan

Strategic planning is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it. It requires broad-scale information gathering, an exploration of alternatives, and an emphasis on the future implications of present decisions. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans prior to FY 1998. Each strategic plan is to include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising the goals.

The mission of an organization describes its reason for existence. Mission statements are broad and expected to remain in effect for an extended period of time. The statement should be clear and concise, summarizing what the organization does by law, and presenting the main purposes for all its major functions and operations. They are often accompanied by an overarching statement of philosophy or strategic purpose intended to convey a vision for the future and an awareness of challenges from a top-level perspective.

Performance goals are sometimes referred to as objectives by other organizations. Note that the terms may be used interchangeably. Performance goals or objectives elaborate on the mission statement and constitute a specific set of policy, programmatic, or management objectives for the programs and operations covered in the stra

plan. They must be expressed in a manner that allows a future assessment of whether a goal has been achieved.

A description of how the goals will be achieved must also be included in a strategic plan. The description should include a schedule for significant actions, a description of resources required to achieve the goals, and the identification of key external factors that might affect achievement of the goals.

Program evaluation is an analytic process used to measure program outcomes. The results of program evaluations are used to help establish and/or revise goals.

Annual Performance Plan

Annual performance plans are derived from the strategic plan and set specific performance goals for a fiscal year. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to prepare annual performance plans for each program activity beginning with FY 1999. A performance plan must include performance goals for the fiscal year and the performance indicators which will be used to assess whether performance goals have been attained. Beginning in FY 2000, agencies will be required to submit annual reports to Congress on the actual performance achieved compared to the goals expressed in the performance plan.

Performance goals are to be expressed in objective, quantifiable, and measurable form. OMB may authorize agencies to use an alternative form if the goals cannot be expressed in a quantifiable manner. However, the alternative form must contain statements which are sufficiently precise to allow an accurate, independent determination of whether the program's actual performance meets the criteria in the statement.

Performance Measures

Performance measures are used to measure goal attainment. They provide a basis for comparing actual program results with established performance goals. A range of measures should be developed for each program.

There are three major categories of performance measures defined by the Comptroller of the Department of Defense, Directorate for Business Management: Factor of production measures, outcome measures, and work process measures. It is usually desirable for all three categories to be represented among an organization's set of measures to achieve balanced measurement across a mission.

1. Factor of Production Measures

These measures typically describe the resource to output relationship. They often focus on different aspects of the resources to output relationship. There are four distinct types of factor of production measures. The four types are:

Input Measures

These measures describe the resources, time, and staff utilized for a program. Financial resources can be identified as current dollars, or discounted, based on economic or accounting practices. Non-financial measures can be described in proxy measures. These measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described later.

Examples:

Output Measures

These measures describe goods or services produced. Outputs can be characterized by a discrete definition of the service or by a proxy measure that represents the product. Highly dissimilar products can be rolled up into a metric. As with Input Measures, these measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described later.

Examples:

Efficiency Measures

Efficiency is the measure of the relationship of outputs to inputs and is usually expressed as a ratio. These measures can be expressed in terms of actual expenditure of resources as compared to expected expenditure of resources. They can also be expressed as the expenditure of resources for a given output.

Examples:

Effectiveness Measures

These are measures of output conformance to specified characteristics.

Examples:

Outcome Measures

Outcome measures describe the results achieved by the product being produced with given characteristics. There are two types of outcome measures. These include:

Direct Outcome Measures

These measures assess the effect of output against given objective standards.

Examples:

Impact Measures

Impact measures describe how the outcome of a program affects strategic organization or mission objectives.

Example: (1) Impact of materiel readiness on execution of Operation Desert Storm

Work Process Measures

Work process measures are indicators of the way work gets done in producing the output at a given level of resources, efficiency, and effectiveness. These measures are a direct by-product of the technique, but do not measure the attributes of the final product per se. These measures are typically processes, or tools, to evaluate and help improve work processes. Some of the common measures include:


For more information, see:

Cohen, S. & Brand, R. (1993). Total quality management in government: A practical guide for the real world. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Fitz-enz, J. (1993). Benchmarking staff performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Rosen, E. D. (1993). Improving public sector productivity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nanus, B. (1992). Visionary Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sims, H. P. & Lorenzi, P. (1992). The new leadership paradigm. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Srivastva, S. & Fry, R. E. (1992). Executive and organizational continuity: Managing the paradoxes of stability and change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Boardman, T. J. & Boardman, E. (1990). Don't touch that funnel! Quality Progress, Dec., 65-69.


Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


For more information about performance measurement, see:

Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT: Basil Blackwell, Inc.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


For more information about goal setting, see:

Odiorne, G. S. (1990). The human side of management: Management by integration and self-control. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal setting: A motivational technique that works!. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Definition (Work Units)

In order to successfully implement a quality improvement process, the various work units within the organization must:


For more information about how to define goals, objectives, and/or performance measures, see Definition (Senior Executives).


Definition (Work Force)

In order to successfully implement a quality improvement process, organizational members must be able to:

A good way to ensure this is to invite organizational members or representatives to participate in setting goals and defining performance measures. In the event that this is not possible, make sure that organizational members know what goals they are working toward and how performance measurement relates to them.


For more information about how to define goals, objectives, and/or performance measures, see the category titled Definition (Senior Executives).


Internal Customer Activities

The ability to meet requirements and external customer expectations requires a quality process in place to create the product or service. A quality process is one which converts raw materials or information into completed products or services with each step in the process adding value toward completing the final product or service. Since these steps are "value-adding activities" and usually produce intermediate outputs, their effect on the final output's quality can be substantial.

The recipients of intermediate outputs (materials or information) are internal customers. Their needs and requirements are equally important as those of external customers.


For more information about internal customers, see:

Schonberger, R. J. (1990). Building a chain of customers: Linking business functions to create the world class company. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality. New York, NY: The Free Press. chs. 2, 4, and 7.


For more information about constructing flow charts, see:

Juran, J. M. (1992). Juran on quality by design: The new steps for planning quality into goods and services. New York, NY: The Free Press. pp. 46-51.

Stankard, M. F. (1986). Productivity by choice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 123 - 127.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: The Putnam Publishing Group. pp. 102 - 103.


For more information see cross-functional teams under Creativity.


External Customer Activities

How do your products or services measure up? The best way to find out is by asking the customers. Waiting for complaints is not the most helpful method since complaints usually do not point out what you are doing right. Better methods include:


For more information, see:

Tjosvold, D. (1992). Teamwork for customers: Building organizations that take pride in serving. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1990). Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 47 - 84.

Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 88 - 101 and 128 - 137.

Peters, T. J. & Waterman, R. H. (1982). In search of excellence. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Crosby, P. B. (1980). Quality is free. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Strategic Quality Planning

A very thorough planning process is crucial whether an organization is developing its overall strategic plan or developing plans for specific quality and productivity improvements. Quality and productivity improvement planning should be integrated with strategic planning. Planning can help identify the primary targets for improvement. It can also provide a basis for estimating the resources needed to do the job.

Identifying quality and productivity improvement priorities can be an important part of the planning process. Consider the development and use of criteria to select those areas most in need of improvement. Some criteria which have proven useful for others are:

After some likely candidate areas for quality and/or productivity improvement have been identified, a variety of possible strategies for improvement can be considered. Any strategy considered should be evaluated against and subsequently integrated into the overall business plan. The strategies presented below represent a "checklist" for consideration. They are not always appropriate for every situation.


For more information about how to develop a strategy and plan for your organization, see:

Kaufman, R. (1992). Strategic planning plus: An organizational guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Nutt, P. C. & Backoff, R. W. (1992). Strategic management of public and third sector organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Beneveniste, G. (1989). Mastering the politics of planning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hellebust, K. G. & Krallinger, J. C. (1989). Strategic planning work book. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Pascarella, P. & Frohman, M. A. (1989). The purpose-driven organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wilkins, A. L. (1989). Developing corporate character. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bryson, J. M. (1988). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Below, P. J., Morrisey, G. L., & Acomb, B. L. (1987). The executive guide to strategic planning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hax, A. C. (1987). Planning strategies that work. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Camillus, J. C. (1985). Strategic planning and management control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.


Strategic Quality Planning

Obviously, the structure of an organization is not easily open to dramatic or sweeping changes. However, working within the basic structure, there may be opportunities for streamlining that can enhance the organization's ability to support its mission.


For more information about streamlining management information systems, see:

Nadler, D. A., Gerstein, M. S., & Shaw, R. B. (1992). Organizational architecture: Designs for changing organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Morton, M. S. (1990). The corporation of the 1990s: Information, technology and organizational transformation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Kraemer, K. L., King, J. L., Dunkle, D. E., & Lane, J. P. (1989). Managing information systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Emery, J. C. (1987). Management information systems: The critical strategic resource. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Investment/Technology

The lack of appropriate technology (or abuse of existing technology) may be hampering the organization's quality improvement process. Budget constraints play a major role in the acquisition of "needed improvements." Besides a healthy budget, here are some other things to consider.


For more information, see:

Dingus, V. R. & Hauck, W. C. (1993). Achieving high commitment work systems: A practitioners guide to sociotechnical system implementation. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Khalil, T. M. & Bayraktar, B. A. (1993). Management of technology III. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Gattiker, U. E. (1990). Technology management in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Preece, D. A. (1989). Managing the adoption of new technology. New York, NY: Routledge, Chapman, & Hall, Inc.

Shetty, Y. K. & Buehler, V. M. (1988). Productivity and quality through science and technology. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.


Methods/Process Improvement

Work processes or methods can often be streamlined or restructured resulting in significant quality and productivity improvement. The ways in which work is accomplished should be reviewed on a regular basis. Some techniques and tools to use are Root Cause Analysis, Statistical Process Control, and the Design of Experiments described under Process Analysis.


For more information on improving and managing the work processes and methods in organizations, see:

Juran, J. M. & Gryna, F. M. (1993). Juran's quality control handbook. (4th Ed.). Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

Ishikawa, K. (1990). Introduction to quality control. White Plains, NY: Quality Resources.

Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 10.

Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 65 - 79.

Moen, R. D. & Nolan, T. W. (1987). Process improvement: A step-by-step approach to analyzing and improving a process. Quality Progress, 20(9), 62-68.

Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: The Putnam Publishing Group.

Feigenbaum, A. V. (1983). Total quality control (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Good Ideas

The people who are doing the job are often the people with the best information and ideas about how to improve the process. A formal suggestion program is one vehicle used to obtain "good ideas." But sometimes people don't bother to use suggestion programs. Someone might feel that "others must have certainly suggested this earlier, so why bother?" Some other methods include:


Quality teams are described under Creativity.


For more information, see:

Champagne, P. J. & McAfee, R. B. (1989). Motivating strategies for performance and productivity: A guide to human resource development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Lawler, E. E. (1991). High-involvement management: Participation strategies for improving organizational performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Creativity

The success of a quality and productivity improvement process depends upon everyone in the organization. For some ideas about how to encourage creativity in your organization, see:

Kilmann, R. H. & Kilmann, I. (1994). Managing ego energy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Russell, P. & Evans, R. (1992). The creative manager: Finding inner vision and wisdom in uncertain times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Timpe, A. D. (1987). Creativity: The art and science of business management. New York, NY: Kend Publishing.

Keil, J. M. (1985). The creative mystique: How to manage it, nurture it, and make it pay. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Here are some ways to get people involved in a creative process.

  • Brainstorming - A technique used by a group of people for thought generation. The aim is to elicit as many ideas as possible within a given time frame.
  • Nominal Group Technique - A technique used by a group of people to define and solve problems. This technique is described under Teams.
  • Modified Delphi Technique - A technique used to select the "best" or "most important" idea or solution from among a set of suggested ideas or solutions.
  • Quality Teams - These teams are also referred to as Performance Action Teams, or Quality Improvement Teams. These teams might be composed of volunteers who meet regularly to review progress toward goal attainment, plan for changes, decide upon corrective actions, etc. Members are usually from the same work unit.
  • Cross-Functional Teams - These teams are similar to quality teams but the members are from several work units that interface with one another. These teams are particularly useful when work units are dependent upon one another for materials, information, etc.
  • Quality Circles - A quality circle is a group of workers and their supervisors who voluntarily meet to identify and solve job-related problems. Structured processes are used by the group to accomplish their task.

  • Scanlon Committees - The committees are comprised of managers, supervisors, and employees who work together to implement a philosophy of management/labor cooperation which is believed to enhance productivity. There are a number of principles and techniques involved, with employee participation being a major component.

    Quality Training

    Successful customer-driven organizations make sure that everyone in the organization receives the appropriate training. Everyone needs to know not only what to do, but also how to do it. Training often takes place on four levels:

    The above-described training emphasizes the strategies, skills, and attitudes needed to support customers. Additional training for selected organizational members is usually necessary to acquire the skills needed to define performance measures, evaluate improvements, design experiments, etc. Formal training programs can be costly. Here are some possibilities to supplement the on-going training programs.


    For more information, see:

    Cochew, T. (1993). Making quality happen: How training can turn strategy into real improvement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Cannie, J. K. & Caplin, D. (1991). Keeping customers for life. New York, NY: AMACOM. ch. 13.

    Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers. ch. 5.

    Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


    Measurement

    Measurement, a method for tracking progress, is fundamental to management even without a formal quality improvement process. There are many types of data that can be collected and monitored concerning quality and productivity improvement progress. Generally, people often refer to six types of data, or performance indicators. These include the measurement of inputs, outputs, efficiency, effectiveness, direct outcomes, and impacts. Each of these types is discussed under Definition (Senior Executives).


    Evaluation

    The data regarding quality and productivity improvement that can be collected are the "performance indicators" which are described in the section Definition (Senior Executives). These data include the measurement of inputs, outputs, efficiency, effectiveness, direct outcomes, and impacts. These data are just "numbers" unless they are compared to something meaningful. Some meaningful comparisons include:


    For more information, see:

    Davidow, W. H. & Uttal, B. (1989). Total customer service: The ultimate weapon. New York, NY: Harper & Row. pp. 185 - 205.

    Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 102 - 114.

    Townsend, P. L. & Gebhardt, J. E. (1986). Commit to quality. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 125 - 139.


    The data concerning a quality improvement process that are collected need to be evaluated periodically. For example, suppose data have been collected and tracked over time. Results indicate that improvement has occurred steadily. How much improvement is good enough? When should priorities shift? Some strategies to use for evaluative purposes include:

    Quality teams, cross-functional teams, and quality circles are described under Creativity.


    For more information about how to evaluate data, see:

    Walton, M. (1986). The Deming management method. New York, NY: The Putnam Publishing Group.

    Crocker, O. L., Chiu, J. S. L., & Charney, C. (1984). Quality circles: A guide to participation and productivity. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications.

    Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1981). Effective evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Feedback

    The data concerning a quality improvement process that are collected need to be seen by the people involved so that they are aware of how they are doing. Feedback should be provided as soon as possible after data collection.


    For more information, see:

    Desatnick, R. L. (1987). Managing to keep the customer. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 102 - 114.

    Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal setting: A motivational technique that works!. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


    Reward Systems

    While salary increases and promotions can be powerful rewards, there are other reasons that people find work to be rewarding. Other possibilities include:


    For more information, see:

    Lawler, E. E. (1994). Motivation in work organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Fargher, J. S. (1993). Productivity and quality improvement in government. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sims, H. P. & Lorenzi, P. (1992). The new leadership paradigm. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Lawler, E. E. (1992). The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Jamieson, D. & O'Mara, J. (1991). Managing workforce 2000. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Kilmann, R. H. (1989). Managing beyond the quick fix. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Roth, W. F. (1989). Work and rewards. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.


    For more information about how pay systems can be tailored to fit a variety of business strategies and management styles, see:

    Lawler, E. E. (1990). Strategic pay: Aligning organizational strategies and pay systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Performance Appraisals

    Salary increases and promotions can be linked to the quality improvement process. An evaluation of people's efforts in the improvement process can be included in the performance appraisals of managers and employees. The use of this option presupposes the establishment of fair goals and objectives.


    For more information, see:

    Mohrman, A. M., Resnick-West, S. M., & Lawler, E. E. (1989). Designing performance appraisal systems. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Baker, J. (1988). Causes of failure in performance appraisal and supervision. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.


    Assessments

    Formal surveys are not always necessary. However, surveys can often be conducted by in-house personnel and can provide a quick means to gather important information. Surveys are also another way to get organizational members involved in quality and productivity improvement. People appreciate the chance to provide input into a process that affects them. But be careful! Be prepared to act upon the results and let people know about what's being done. Surveys can be used to assess people's opinions about the:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to gather data about what your customers think. This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 2 - Measures of Customer Satisfaction- can help you find out what your customers think about your products or services.


    For more information about survey development and conduct, see:

    Hayes B. E. (1992). Measuring customer satisfaction: Development and use of questionnaires. Milwaukee, WI: ASQC Quality Press.

    Jennings, S., McCarthy, B., & Undy, R. (1990). Employee relations audits. New York, NY: Routledge, Chapman, & Hall, Inc.

    Fink, A. & Kosecoff, J. (1985). How to conduct surveys: A step-by-step guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Sudman, S. & Bradburn, N. M. (1982). Asking questions: A practical guide to questionnaire design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Nadler, D. A. (1977). Feedback and organization development: Using data-based methods. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


    For more information about interviews, see:

    McCracken, G. (1988). The long interview. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Kaman, V. S. (1986). Why assessment interviews are worth it. Training and Development Journal, May. pp. 108 - 110.


    Definition (Teams)

    Some tools involving group participation that can be utilized to define missions, goals, and objectives are described below.

  • Nominal Group Technique - A tool for idea generation, problem solving, mission and key result area definition, performance measure definition, goals/objectives definition. Participants should include a variety of levels (i.e., workers, supervisors, managers). A group leader addresses the subject and presents the problem or issue to be dealt with by the group. Participants spend a few minutes writing down their ideas. The leader conducts a round-robin listing of the ideas by asking each participant in turn for one idea. All ideas are written on a flip chart as stated and no judgments or evaluations are made at this time. Each item is then discussed in turn. Some ideas are combined, some discarded, some new ideas are added. The leader then asks participants to vote for the top 3, 5, or 7 priority items. The results are tallied, and the top five priority items (based on the voting results) are discussed. For example, as applied to key result area definition, the top five priority items would be the five key result areas chosen by the group as most important for mission accomplishment.

  • Roadblock Identification Analysis - A tool that focuses on identifying roadblocks to performance improvement and/or problems that are causing the group to be less productive than it could be. This tool utilizes the nominal group technique to identify and prioritize performance roadblocks. Action teams are formed to analyze barriers and develop proposals to remove roadblocks. The proposals are implemented, tracked, and evaluated.
  • 8-Step Planning Process - A systematic, participative process for developing goals, strategies, and tactics for a performance improvement effort. The process is executed by top and middle level managers.

  • Management Systems Analysis - A tool designed to improve the clarity of understanding about the system being managed. It is a five-step process that identifies improvement interventions and helps design suitable measurement systems.

  • Productivity by Objectives - A systematic process for involving everyone in a comprehensive plan to achieve selected goals and objectives. This process involves a hierarchical system with councils, teams, and coordinators.

  • Management by Objectives - An approach which stresses mutual goal setting by managers and subordinates, clarity and specificity in the statement of goals, and frequent feedback concerning progress toward goals. Goals should be couched in terms of specific measurable outcomes (such as units produced, product quality). Goals should be realistic and attainable.

    Measurement/Process Analysis

    Some tools which can be utilized to analyze performance data and/or analyze work processes are described below.

  • Root Cause Analysis - A root cause is the bottom line of a problem. Often, problems present themselves only as symptoms. Symptoms do not explain problems, they point to them. A root cause is the reason for the problem or symptom. Root cause analysis, then, is a method used to identify potential root causes of problems, narrow those down to the most significant causes, and analyze them using the following tools.

    Organizational Development

    Some tools used in organizational development are discussed below.

  • (1) Force Field Analysis - A technique involving the identification of forces "for" and "against" a certain course of action. The nominal group technique could be used in conjunction with force field analysis. The group might prioritize the forces for and against by assessing their magnitude and probability of occurrence. The group might then develop an action plan to minimize the forces against and maximize the forces for.

  • (2) Team Building - A process of developing and maintaining a group of people who are working toward a common goal. Team building usually focuses on one or more of the following objectives: (1) clarifying role expectations and obligations of team members; (2) improving superior-subordinate or peer relationships; (3) improving problem-solving, decision making, resource utilization, or planning activities; (4) reducing conflict; and (5) improving organizational climate.

  • (3) Transactional Analysis - A process that helps people change to be more effective on the job and can also help organizations to change. The process involves several exercises that help identify organizational scripts and games that people may be playing. The results help point the way toward change.

    Awareness/Communication

    For any process to be effective, the people throughout the organization must know about it and understand it. Special publicity efforts may be necessary when a process is first established. There should be a regular mechanism for keeping people informed about progress. Some possibilities include:


    For more information, see:

    Stankard, M. F. (1986). Productivity by choice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 65-91.

    Crosby, P. B. (1984). Quality without tears. New York, NY: New American Library.

    Crosby, P. B. (1980). Quality is free. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


    Work Flow/Delays

    Your scores indicate that work delays and/or work flow may be a problem for the organization. An analysis of work methods and processes may be appropriate in order to pinpoint common causes for delays. One potential cause may be that members of one work unit are waititegic plan. They must be expressed in a manner t unit before they can proceed. Another potential cause could be that equipment is frequently "down" for repair. You may wish to consider the following:


    For more information, see:

    Bumbarger, W. B. (1993). Operation function analysis do-it-yourself productivity improvement. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Robson, G. D. (1991). Continuous process improvement: Simplifying work flow systems. New York, NY: The Free Press.


    Waste

    Your scores indicate that there may be more wastage of materials and supplies than is desirable for the organization. An analysis of work methods and work processes may be appropriate to determine causes of excessive waste. Perhaps there is an easier method for identifying salvageable materials for recycling. You may wish to consider the following:


    Tools/Equipment

    Your scores indicate that tools and equipment are frequently in need of repair. One cause may be that they are old or subject to an overload and need replacement. Another cause may be neglect which may or may not be inadvertent. Some possible actions include:


    Safety

    Your scores indicate that the organization may be experiencing some problems with its safety record. Employees may not be following appropriate safety regulations. Some possible actions include:


    For more information, see:

    Ostrom, L. (1994). Creating the ergonomically sound workplace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Shell, R. L. & Simmons, R. J. (1993). An engineering approach to occupational safety and health in business and industry. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Jones, J. W. & Bray, D. W. (1990). Applying psychology in business. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

    Wokutch, R. E. (1990). Cooperation and conflict in occupational safety and health. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

    Heisler, W. J., Jones, W. D., & Benham, P. O. (1988). Managing human resources issues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Health

    Your scores indicate that employees may be experiencing excessive health problems. Excessive absenteeism (or high turnover rates) may be due to health problems that result from stress at work.


    For more information about health and the work environment, see:

    Zedeck, S. (1992). Work, families, and organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Jones, J. W. & Bray, D. W. (1990). Applying psychology in business. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

    Champagne, P. J. & McAfee, R. B. (1989). Motivating strategies for performance and productivity: A guide to human resource development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

    Murphy, L. R. & Schoenborn, T. F. (1989). Stress management in work settings. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Speller, J. L. (1989). Executives in crisis. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Matteson, M. T. & Ivancevich, J. M. (1987). Controlling work stress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Sloan, R. P., Gruman, J. C., & Allegrante, J. P. (1987). Investing in employee health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Blanchard, M. & Tager, M. J. (1985). Working well: Managing for health and high performance. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.


    Staffing

    In the face of budget constraints, there is probably not much that can be done about understaffing. However, in the spirit of "making the most with what you've got," analyzing work methods and processes may offer some insights for reorganization of work which would then impact upon workload.


    Some tools and techniques for process analysis are described under Process Analysis.

    High turnover can occur for a wide variety of reasons. Lack of opportunity for advancement, too little work to do, too much work to do, repetitive work, working conditions, etc. Some possible actions include:


    For more information, see:

    Noer, D. M. (1993). Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    McGregor, E.B. (1991). Strategic management of human knowledge, skills, and abilities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Jones, J. W. & Bray, D. W. (1990). Applying psychology in business. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

    Phillips, J. J. (1987). Recruiting, training and retaining new employees. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Facilities

    Budget constraints may prohibit extensive remodeling of facilities. However, certain problems such as inadequate lighting or excessive noise levels may be hindering quality work.


    For more information, see:

    Smith, P. & Kearny, L. (1994). Creating workplaces where people can think. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Salvendy, G. (1993). Handbook of human factors. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Fredrickson, J. M. (1989). Designing the cost-effective office: A guide for facilities planners and managers. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

    Prince, J. S. (1980). Environments that work for people. Administrative Management, 60, 36-42.

    Steele, F. I. (1973). Physical settings and organization development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

    Brookes, M. J. & Kaplan, A. (1972). The office environment: Space planning and effective behavior. Human Factors, 14, 373-391.


    Training

    Quality and productivity improvement requires first that everyone is adequately trained to do his/her work. In addition, people appreciate the chance to enhance their skills which may allow them to "rise in the ranks" in a timely fashion. The organization benefits from the additional expertise of its members.


    For more information, see:

    Van Wart, M., Cayer, N. J. & Cook, S. (1993). Handbook of training and development for the public sector. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Carnevale, A. P., Gainer, L. J. & Villet, J. (1990). Training in America: The organization and strategic role of training. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Nadler, L. & Nadler, Z. (1989). Developing human resources (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Robinson, D. G. & Robinson, J. C. (1989). Training for impact: How to link training to business needs and measure the results. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Casner-Lotto, J. (1988). Successful training strategies: Twenty-six innovative corporate models. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. (1987). Achieving results from training. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Rosow, J. M., Zager, R., & Casner-Lotto, J. (1988). Training: The competitive edge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Supplies/Parts

    Your scores indicate that the organization may be experiencing difficulty with the quality and/or timeliness of receipt of the supplies and materials used to accomplish work.


    Work Priorities

    Your scores indicate that people often have to shift work priorities and/or redo job tasks in order to get the job done. Sometimes shifting work priorities is inevitable due to the nature of the jobs. Often, restructuring the group can alleviate some of the problems.


    For more information about group restructuring, see:

    Yorks, L. & Whitsett, J. L. (1989). Scenarios of change: Advocacy and the diffusion of job redesign in organizations. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

    Goodman, P. S. (1986). Designing effective work groups. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Quality

    Your scores indicate that one or more of the customers are not satisfied with the quality of work they receive. Many of the tools and techniques that have

    been described throughout this booklet can be applied to improve this outcome. Some ideas include:


    Timeliness

    Your scores indicate that one or more of the customers may be displeased with the timeliness of work being produced. You may need to investigate ways to speed up work processes or deadlines without adversely affecting the quality of work.

    Some delays may be caused by waiting for information, supplies, etc., from other work units or organizations with whom you interface. Should this be the case, invite members from those work units and/or organizations to participate in cross-functional teams. There may be ways to increase the speed with which you obtain your "inputs," thereby increasing your speed in delivering "outputs."


    Reliability

    Your scores indicate that one or more of the customers find errors in what they receive or that the work is inconsistent. This outcome is closely associated with the quality of work produced, since work that is inconsistent or contains errors is obviously not of high quality.


    Organization Input Measures

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their inputs. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), input measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Input measures describe the resources, time, and staff utilized for a program. Financial resources can be identified as current dollars, or discounted, based on economic or accounting practices. Non-financial measures can be described in proxy measures. These measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described in other sections of this book.

    Examples:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


    Organization Output Measures

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their outputs. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), output measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Output measures describe goods or services produced. Outputs can be characterized by a discrete definition of the service or by a proxy measure that represents the product. Highly dissimilar products can be rolled up into a metric. As with Input Measures, these measures are not described in terms of ratios. They are often used as one element of other measures such as efficiency and effectiveness measures which are described later.

    Examples:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.

    Organization Efficiency Measures

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their efficiency. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), efficiency measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Efficiency is the measure of the relationship of outputs to inputs and is usually expressed as a ratio. These measures can be expressed in terms of actual expenditure of resources as compared to expected expenditure of resources. They can also be expressed as the expenditure of resources for a given output.

    Examples:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.
    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


    Organization Effectiveness Measures

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their effectiveness. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), effectiveness measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Effectiveness measures are measures of output conformance to specified characteristics.

    Examples:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


    Organization Direct Outcomes

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their direct outcomes. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), direct outcome measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Direct outcomes measures assess the effect of output against given objective standard.

    Examples:


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.


    Organization Impact Measures

    Your scores indicate that your work units may not be measuring their impact. The Government Performance and Results Act (1993) requires Federal agencies to develop strategic plans which must include a mission statement, general performance goals and objectives, a description of how the goals will be achieved, and an indication of how program evaluations were used in establishing or revising goals. In order to establish goals (and evaluate performance against them), impact measures must be developed and regularly monitored.

    Impact measures describe how the outcome of a program affects strategic organization or mission objectives.

    Example: (1) Impact of materiel readiness on execution of Operation Desert Storm


    Software for use on personal computers can provide an easy way to choose from a variety of performance measures that others have found useful (or create your own). This survey is one component of the DoD Performance Assessment Guide. Module 3 - Guide for Developing Performance Measures - can help you develop your own set of performance measures.


    For more information, see:

    Camp, R. C. (1993). Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Shell, R. L. (1993). Work measurement: Principles and practices. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Sink, D. S. & Tuttle, T. C. (1993). Planning and measurement in your organization of the future. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press.

    Lynch, R. & Cross, K. (1990). Measure up! Yardsticks for continuous improvement. Colchester, VT. Basil Blackwell, Inc.

    Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organizational chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ch. 4.

    Brinkerhoff, R. O. & Dressler, D. E. (1989). Productivity measurement: A guide for managers and evaluators. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

    Whiting, E. (1986). A guide to business performance measurements. New York, NY: Macmillan Press.

    Nash, M. (1983). Managing organizational performance. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.