08--Earth Sciences and Oceanography

01
Biological Oceanography
Marine plant and animal life as it relates to its environment. For pollution of the ocean, See 24/04, Water Pollution and Control.

02 Cartography and Aerial Photography Mapping including radar mapping; Photogrammetry; Terrain modelling; Map projections; Topographic representation; Aerial and satellite photography; Photointerpretation.

03 Physical and Dynamic Oceanography Physical, chemical and dynamic properties of the oceans and seas; Topography, geochemistry and geophysics of the ocean bottom; Ocean waves; Currents; Tides; Ocean- air interactions; Beach and shore erosion and sediment transport. For sea ice phenomena and ice breaking operations, See 08/12, Snow, Ice and Permafrost. For fresh water phenomena, See 08/08, Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology. For water pollution, See 24/04, Water Pollution and Control.

04 Geomagnetism The study of the earth's magnetism, geomagnetic field theory and measurement. Includes solar terrestrial magnetic interactions. For magnetic detection of manmade events, See 17/06, Magnetic and Electric Field Detection and Detectors. For geomagnetic location of mineral deposits, See 08/09, Mining Engineering.

05 Geodesy Geodetic surveying; Determination of position of points on the earth's surface; Shape and size of the earth; Variations of terrestrial gravity; Astronomical geodesy and geodesics.

06 Geography The study of the non-physical aspects of the natural and political divisions of the earth. Includes country and area studies. For physical geography, See 08/07, Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy. For biogeography, See 06/06, Ecology. For economic geography, See 05/03, Economics and Cost Analysis. For political geography, See 05/04, Government and Political Science.

07 Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy The sciences that deal with the physical history of the earth, the materials of which it is composed, and the physical changes which the earth has undergone such as erosion; Mineralogy; Geochemistry of rock and soils; Paleontology; Stratigraphy; Vulcanology; Tectonics; Engineering Geology; Structural Geology; Petrology; Petrography; Physical geography including geomorphology and physiography. See also 08/11, Seismology, and 08/10, Soil Mechanics.

08 Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology Distribution and circulation of inland bodies of water such as estuaries, streams and lakes. Includes their surface and underground occurrence and their physical, chemical and biological properties; Eutrophication; Runoff and ground water; Shore and channel erosion and sedimentation. For water pollution and waste treatment facilities, See 24/04, Water Pollution and Control.
09 Mining Engineering Exploration, location and evaluation of mineral deposits including oil and gas; Layout and equipment of mines and recovery techniques; Geophysical prospecting including use of seismic waves. For geophysical exploration techniques used for other purposes, see field of application. For disposal of mining wastes, See 24/03, Solid Wastes Pollution and Control.

10 Soil Mechanics Physical properties and engineering aspects of soils; Landslides; Freezing of non- permanently frozen soils. For studies of permanently frozen soils, See 08/12, Snow, Ice and Permafrost. For soil erosion, See 08/03, Physical and Dynamic Oceanography, 08/07, Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy, 08/08, Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology, and 02/03, Agricultural Engineering.

11 Seismology Detection, measurement and analysis of natural seismic phenomena. Includes tsunamis and seismic generated landslides and earthquakes. For seismic detection of nuclear explosions, See 18/03, Nuclear Explosions and Devices(Non-Military), and 19/11, Nuclear Weapons. For seismic detection of other man made events, See 17/10, Seismic Detection and Detectors. For location of mineral deposits by seismic waves, See 08/09, Mining Engineering. For other seismic profiling, see group where application is treated.

12 Snow, Ice and Permafrost Physical characteristics of snow, ice and permanently frozen soil, such as trafficability, stability, mechanical properties; Avalanches; Glaciers and sea ice. For studies of non-permanently frozen soil, See 08/10, Soil Mechanics. For equipment icing studies also use the group where the equipment is treated.