In the DoD Dictionary, an improvised explosive device (IED) is a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. It may incorporate military materials, but is normally devised from non-military components. IEDs are used as weapons of strategic influence by our adversaries in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. They are the most pervasive threat to coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. Improvised explosives can be classified by delivery mechanisms: vehicle-based, boat-borne, animal-borne, collar bombs, suicide bombers, platter charges, and explosively-formed penetrators. IEDs are triggered by pressure plates, Command Wire IEDs (CWIED), Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCIED), cell phone RCEID, Victim-Operated IEDs (VOIED), and passive infrared. IEDs in Iraq are triggered from radio-controlled bombs, while the IED threat in Afghanistan is from wires or pressure plates, a more mechanical means in a more primitive communications infrastructure. Current counter-IED strategy includes identification of the precursors and detection and disarmament of the devices. With the evolution of IEDs triggered by wireless and cyber networks, the challenges of IED defeat continues to be a moving target for military forces worldwide
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