Accession Number : ADA441935


Title :   The Effectiveness of Instructional Games: A Literature Review and Discussion


Descriptive Note : Technical rept. Jul-Oct 2005


Corporate Author : NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER TRAINING SYSTEMS DIV ORLANDO FL


Personal Author(s) : Hays, Robert T


Full Text : http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a441935.pdf


Report Date : Nov 2005


Pagination or Media Count : 63


Abstract : This report documents a review of 48 empirical research articles on the effectiveness of instructional games. It also includes summaries of 26 other review articles and 31 theoretical articles on instructional gaming. Eased on this review the following 5 conclusions and 4 recommendations are provided. Conclusions: (1) The empirical research on the instructional effectiveness of games is fragmented, filled with ill defined terms, and plagued with methodological flaws. (2) Some games provide effective instruction for some tasks some of the time, but these results may not be generalizable to other games or instructional programs. (3) No evidence indicates that games are the preferred instructional method in all situations. (4) Instructional games are more effective if they are embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. (5) Instructional support during play increases the effectiveness of instructional games. Recommendations: (1) The decision to use a game for instruction should be based on a detailed analysis of learning requirements and tradeoffs among alternate instructional approaches. (2) Program managers and procurement officials should insist that instructional game developers demonstrate how their game will support instructional objectives. (3) Games should be used as adjuncts and aids, not as stand-alone instruction. (4) Instructor-less a roaches (e.g., web-based instruction) must include all instructor functions.


Descriptors :   *TEACHING METHODS , *COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION , *GAME THEORY , DECISION MAKING , LITERATURE SURVEYS , SELF CONTAINED , INTERNET , DEBRIEFING , PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION , LEARNING , TRADE OFF ANALYSIS , OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS , INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS


Subject Categories : Humanities and History


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE