Accession Number : ADA221031


Title :   Alternative Policy Instruments


Corporate Author : RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA


Personal Author(s) : McDonnell, Lorraine M. ; Elmore, Richard F.


Report Date : NOV 1987


Pagination or Media Count : 40


Abstract : Policies work by bringing the resources of government-money, rules, and authority-into the service of political objectives, and using those resources to influence the actions of individuals and institutions. The first generation of policy implementation research focused primarily on whether results were consistent with intentions. The second generation focused on variations in the response of individuals and institutions, and on the conditions of successful implementation. The next generation, we believe, should build on the lessons of the first two by focusing on the instruments common to different policies and on the conditions under which those instruments are most likely to produce their intended effects. Over the past decade, implementation research has developed as a major strand of policy analysis. Numerous studies with an implementation focus have documented the importance of local context in understanding the variable effects of policy (McLaughlin, 1987). This research tradition has played a significant role in moving institutional analysts beyond an almost sole concentration on policy enactment and in infusing evaluation research with a more sophisticated notion of the process that shapes policy outcomes. Yet implementation research has come under increasing criticism for its lack of parsimonious theory (Ingram, forthcoming), its neglect of longer- term policy effects, and its primary focus on discrete federal programs. Keywords: Military publications, Reports, Periodicals.


Descriptors :   *INSTRUMENTATION , *POLICIES , LONG RANGE(TIME) , STRANDS , RESOURCES , MILITARY PUBLICATIONS , SHAPE , UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT , VARIABLES


Subject Categories : GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL SCIENCE


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE