Accession Number : AD1030090


Title :   Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water


Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Aug 1993,01 Sep 2016


Corporate Author : NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON United States


Personal Author(s) : Gauss ,Roger C ; Kunz,Edward L ; Fialkowski,Joseph M ; Menis,Richard


Full Text : http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1030090.pdf


Report Date : 18 Jan 2017


Pagination or Media Count : 144


Abstract : For a low-frequency (LF; 1 kHz) or mid-frequency (MF; 1 to 10 kHz) active sonar, scattering from the seafloor, coupled with propagation conditions, can severely limit the detectability of returns from features of interest. Acoustic scattering from the seabed can be a complex mix of surface roughness and volume heterogeneity contributions, so that reverberation levels can vary dramatically, depending on the local geology. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed LF and MF, direct-path bottom backscattering strength (BBS) measurements at 105 sites over 6 experiments in 5 distinct environments from 1993 to 2005. This report presents the BBS results from these experiments, as well as empirical fits to the MF results.


Descriptors :   backscattering , active sonar , seabed , Underwater acoustics , Reverberation , low frequencies , surface roughness , sonar signals , data processing


Subject Categories : Acoustic Detection and Detectors
      Acoustics


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE