Accession Number : AD1015208

Title :   Animal Models for Testing Antidotes Against an Oral Cyanide Challenge

Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Nov 2013,30 Sep 2016


Personal Author(s) : Babin,Michael C ; Reid,Frances M ; Jett,David A ; Platoff,Gennady Jr E ; Yeung,David T

Full Text :

Report Date : 01 Aug 2016

Pagination or Media Count : 27

Abstract : Cyanide (CN) is ubiquitous in many living organisms, commonly used in manufacturing processes (dyes, pigments, chelating agents, various nitriles, monomers, resins, fibers, case hardening, electroplating, extraction of precious metals, and fumigation), observed in accidental poisonings from natural or manmade products (smoke inhalation, cyanogens in apple seeds, peach pits, cherry pits, etc.) and as a possible terror threat agent. A higher priority has been placed on CN treatment and antidote evaluations in recent years, possibly as a result of CN being associated with fires, suicide, homicide, judicial execution, assassinations, chemical warfare operations, and as a terrorist threat. The purpose of this review is to identify the similarities and differences between human and animal species exposed orally to cyanide and provide documentation and justification for species model selection under the FDA Animal Rule. Review of CN absorption, metabolism, toxicokinetics, anatomic and physiologic assessment in various small and large animal species was conducted with focus placed on the advantages of each in CN research being provided in this review.

Descriptors :   laboratory animals , humans , CYANIDES , ANTIDOTES , BIOLOGICAL ABSORPTION , POISONING , toxicity tests , SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS , metabolism , therapeutics , chemical warfare agents

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE