Accession Number : AD1015208


Title :   Animal Models for Testing Antidotes Against an Oral Cyanide Challenge


Descriptive Note : Technical Report,01 Nov 2013,30 Sep 2016


Corporate Author : BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST COLUMBUS OH COLUMBUS United States


Personal Author(s) : Babin,Michael C ; Reid,Frances M ; Jett,David A ; Platoff,Gennady Jr E ; Yeung,David T


Full Text : http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=AD1015208


Report Date : 01 Aug 2016


Pagination or Media Count : 27


Abstract : Cyanide (CN) is ubiquitous in many living organisms, commonly used in manufacturing processes (dyes, pigments, chelating agents, various nitriles, monomers, resins, fibers, case hardening, electroplating, extraction of precious metals, and fumigation), observed in accidental poisonings from natural or manmade products (smoke inhalation, cyanogens in apple seeds, peach pits, cherry pits, etc.) and as a possible terror threat agent. A higher priority has been placed on CN treatment and antidote evaluations in recent years, possibly as a result of CN being associated with fires, suicide, homicide, judicial execution, assassinations, chemical warfare operations, and as a terrorist threat. The purpose of this review is to identify the similarities and differences between human and animal species exposed orally to cyanide and provide documentation and justification for species model selection under the FDA Animal Rule. Review of CN absorption, metabolism, toxicokinetics, anatomic and physiologic assessment in various small and large animal species was conducted with focus placed on the advantages of each in CN research being provided in this review.


Descriptors :   laboratory animals , humans , CYANIDES , ANTIDOTES , BIOLOGICAL ABSORPTION , POISONING , toxicity tests , SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS , metabolism , therapeutics , chemical warfare agents


Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE